Criminal law

Criminal law

مشاركة غير مقروءةبواسطة دعاء العم » الأحد نوفمبر 02, 2008 5:38 pm

[align=left]Main article: Criminal law
Criminal law (also known as penal law) pertains to crimes and punishment.[17] It thus regulates the definition of and penalties for offences found to have a sufficiently deleterious social impact.[18] Investigating, apprehending, charging, and trying suspected offenders is regulated by the law of criminal procedure.[19] The paradigm case of a crime lies in the proof, in the concept of beyond reasonable doubt, the judgement that a person is guilty of two things. First, the accused must commit an act which is deemed by society to be criminal, or actus reus (guilty act).[20] Second, the accused must have the requisite malicious intent to do a criminal act, or mens rea (guilty mind). However for so called "strict liability" crimes, an actus reus is enough.[21] Criminal systems of the civil law tradition distinguish between intention in the broad sense (dolus directus and dolus eventualis), and negligence. Negligence does not carry criminal responsibility unless a particular crime provides for its punishment.[22]


A depiction of a 1600s criminal trial, for witchcraft in SalemActs of crime include murder, assault, fraud and theft. In exceptional circumstances defences can apply to specific ats, such as murder in self defence, or pleading insanity. Another example is in the 19th century English case of R. v. Dudley and Stephens, which tested a defence of "necessity". The Mignotte, sailing from Southampton to Sydney, sank. Three crew members and a cabin boy were stranded on a raft. They were starving and the cabin boy was close to death. Driven to extreme hunger, the crew killed and ate the cabin boy. The crew survived and were rescued, but put on trial for murder. They argued it was necessary to kill the cabin boy to preserve their own lives. Lord Coleridge, expressing immense disapproval, ruled, "to preserve one's life is generally speaking a duty, but it may be the plainest and the highest duty to sacrifice it." The men were sentenced to hang, but public opinion was overwhelmingly supportive of the crew's right to preserve their own lives. In the end, the Crown commuted their sentences to six months in jail.[23]

Criminal law offences are viewed as offences against not just individual victims, but the community as well.[18] The state, usually with the help of police, takes the lead in prosecution, which is why in common law countries cases are cited as "The People v. …" or "R. (for Rex or Regina) v. …" Also, lay juries are often used to determine the guilt of defendants on points of fact: juries cannot change legal rules. Some developed countries still condone capital punishment for criminal activity, but the normal punishment for a crime will be imprisonment, fines, state supervision (such as probation), or community service. Modern criminal law has been affected considerably by the social sciences, especially with respect to sentencing, legal research, legislation, and rehabilitation.[24] On the international field, 108 are members of the International Criminal Court, which was established to try people for crimes against humanity.[25][/align]
[align=center]عدوك مذموم بكل لسان ~ ولو كان من أعدائك القمران
ولله سر في علاك وإنما ~ كلام العدا ضرب من الهذيان
أتلتمس الأعداء بعد الذي رأت ~ قيام دليل أووضوح بيان؟
رأت كل من ينوي لك الغدر يبتلى~ بغدر حياة أو بغدر زمان
لو الفلك الدوار أبغضت سعيه ~ لعوقة شيء عن الدوران[/align]
دعاء العم
اوائل الاعضاء
اوائل الاعضاء
 
مشاركات: 280
اشترك في: السبت أكتوبر 11, 2008 6:37 pm
الجنس: أنثى

Re: Criminal law

مشاركة غير مقروءةبواسطة طرفها الكحيـل » الثلاثاء نوفمبر 11, 2008 1:50 pm

[align=center]thanks for adding the Subject


TC
[/align]
[align=center]الجرح (((( أرحم )))) اذا يرجع من أغليته ...

مجروح (((( فدوه )))) ولكن صعب وحداني ...
[/align]
صورة العضو الشخصية
طرفها الكحيـل
اوائل الاعضاء
اوائل الاعضاء
 
مشاركات: 79
اشترك في: الأربعاء أكتوبر 22, 2008 11:09 pm
الجنس: أنثى

Re: Criminal law

مشاركة غير مقروءةبواسطة شمعة الجلاس » السبت نوفمبر 15, 2008 8:58 pm

[align=center]thanks for adding the Subject [/align]
شمعة الجلاس
اوائل الاعضاء
اوائل الاعضاء
 
مشاركات: 83
اشترك في: الاثنين نوفمبر 03, 2008 10:18 pm
مكان: محرقاويه
الجنس: أنثى

Re: Criminal law

مشاركة غير مقروءةبواسطة دعاء العم » الأحد نوفمبر 16, 2008 8:16 pm

[align=center]you are wellcom all[/align]
[align=center]عدوك مذموم بكل لسان ~ ولو كان من أعدائك القمران
ولله سر في علاك وإنما ~ كلام العدا ضرب من الهذيان
أتلتمس الأعداء بعد الذي رأت ~ قيام دليل أووضوح بيان؟
رأت كل من ينوي لك الغدر يبتلى~ بغدر حياة أو بغدر زمان
لو الفلك الدوار أبغضت سعيه ~ لعوقة شيء عن الدوران[/align]
دعاء العم
اوائل الاعضاء
اوائل الاعضاء
 
مشاركات: 280
اشترك في: السبت أكتوبر 11, 2008 6:37 pm
الجنس: أنثى

Re: Criminal law

مشاركة غير مقروءةبواسطة بيان العلي » الاثنين ديسمبر 01, 2008 1:07 am

شكرا ع الموضوع دعاء

يعطيج الف عافية
بيان العلي
اوائل الاعضاء
اوائل الاعضاء
 
مشاركات: 148
اشترك في: السبت أكتوبر 11, 2008 4:00 am
مكان: : رفاع العز :
الجنس: أنثى


العودة إلى English for Law

 


  • { RELATED_TOPICS }
    ردود
    مشاهدات
    آخر مشاركة

الموجودون الآن

المستخدمون المتصفحون لهذا المنتدى: لا يوجد أعضاء مسجلين متصلين و 3 زائر/زوار